Unit 1 The Foundations and Purposes of Adult Education

Good Resource: All Things Adult Education Wiki

Modern Adult Education, Inc.

Normative Question - A question that evaluates the difference between what is happening and what should be happening.

agency of the adult educator - instrument/role/force that causes change/power of the adult educator

Pedagogy - literally, is the art or science of teaching children; however, while the term is often used to mean the art of teaching in general, some prefer to make the distinction between pedagogy (teaching children) and andragogy (teaching adults). The terms "pedagogy" and "andragogy" are also used to describe teacher/subject based instruction and student centered/directed instruction. (New World Encyclopedia)
Andragogy - Knowles defines andragogy as "the science and art of helping adults learn." (as cited in Spencer, 2006, p 4)

Criticisms of Andragogy
  • focus in individualized experience rather than social
  • neglects the social, cultural, and political dimensions of adult education (Scott, 1998, p. 108)
  • In its narrow preoccupation with technique (pure instrumentality according to Welton), andragogy has inhibited broader aspirations for an emancipatory pedagogy. (Scott, 1998, p. 108) Pure instrumentality - how effective concepts/theories are at predicting/explaining phenomena.
  • Currently, as a university-based discipline and expressed in terms of andragogy, is simply not part to the most significant developments taking place under the rubric of lifelong education, developments that are bypassing the academy of adult education. (Scott, 1998, p. 113)
  • some note an almost cult-like quality to the extent that self-directedness is viewed as the essenc3e of what adult learning is all about. (Scott, 1998, p. 300)

Critical Theory
Perspectives on adult education informed by critical theory for an emancipatory practice of lifelong education are motivated by a sense of connectedness to international events. This is not included in the definition of andragogy. (Scott, 1998, p. 108)

Banking method of education - a concept perhaps most famously criticized in Freire's Pedagogy of the Oppressed. With the "banking" method, teachers lecture and bestow knowledge upon the student, who then passively receives, or "banks" it. (link)

Praxis - reflective thought and action.

Adult education - deliberately organized activities, including non-formal spontaneous manifestations in our everyday experience (Scott, 1998, p. 53)
Informal learning - learning resulting from daily life activities related to work, family, or leisure. It is often referred to as experiential learning and can to a certain degree be understood as accidental learning. It is not structured in terms of learning objectives, learning time and/or learning support. Typically, it does not lead to certification. Informal learning may be intentional but in most cases, it is non-intentional (or ‘incidental’/random). (link)
Formal learning - consists of learning that occurs within an organized and structured context (formal education, in-company training), and that is designed as learning. It may lead to a formal recognition (diploma, certificate). Formal learning is intentional from the learner’s perspective. (link)
Nonformal learning - organized learning outside the formal learning system and consists of learning embedded in planned activities that are not explicitly designated as learning, but which contain an important learning element. Non-formal learning is intentional from the learner’s point of view. For example: learning by coming together with people with similar interests and exchanging viewpoints, in clubs or in (international) youth organizations, workshops. (link)

Adult Education Services - three main groupings (one opinion) (Fenwick, 2006, page 118)
  1. a concern for academics, credential and vocational attainment, largely in the formal education sector
  2. the provision of oganized educational activities for personal interest and development
  3. adult education for social action and social change - against the claims of capital

Lifelong learning/education - a growing realization that learning is not confined to schools, colleges, and universities. The idea that education and significant learning go on beyond the school walls and throughout life. It is a reminder that education takes place outside the restriction on time ans space designated by conventional schooling. (Scott, 1998, p. 51/52)

Self-directed learners
  • are viewed as being proactive inquirers who, in mature fashion, seed to learn as much as possible on their own terms - Knowles. (Scott, 1998, p. 50)
  • Self-directed learning begins with the learner. It sees the learner as the primary impetus for and the initiator of the learning process. Teacher, classes, and other educational feature are then put in a secondary light, as aids to the learning process rather than its central elements - Draves (as cited in Scott, 1998, p. 50)
  • a central tenet of andragogy and some note an almost cult-like quality to the extent that self-directedness is viewed as the essenc3e of what adult learning is all about. (Scott, 1998, p. 300)
  • it is commonly recognized that self-study was the primary means of learning prior to the advent of formal schooling, albeit these learning endeavors often took root within the society of other learners. (Scott, 1998, p. 301)
  • Later self-directed learning was often heralded as a means to ensure learners some control over their learning environments within or, more commonly, outside formal educational institutions. (Scott, 1998, p. 301)
  • self-directed learning primarily influenced by the premises of humanist, behaviourist and developmental psychology. Although the roots of these psychologies are primarily located in two competing paradigms (technical and interpretive). Knowles' "modern practice of adult education" is a resolute attempt to bridge such disparate elements. Learning contracts, objectives, techniques, an outcome evaluations are from the technical paradigm which promotes the development of increasingly higher levels of self-understanding and self-actualization (interpretive paradigm).(Scott, 1998, p. 301)
  • Critics: irony--> increasing formalization and technisization of self-directed learning methods and structures.
  • Some link self-directed learning with a critical perspective--focus respectively on transformative learning and critical learning and critical thinking; and propose a process of critical reflection and action intended to question and change social, political, and economic circumstances and that self-directed learning ultimately undermines the hegemony of the formal education system: "Radical change in social, moral, aesthetic and political affairs is often the outcome of a process of self-directed learning in opposition to the educational message imposed from without. (Scott, 1998, p. 301)
  • Others taking a radical stance, propose an emancipatory practice of adult education "informed by social theories of action rather than by psychological learning theories" within which the current technical preoccupation with self-directed learning would be re-directed to "emancipation as a core concern." (Scott, 1998, p. 302)

Self-directed learners Definedish
  • Process
    • Tough/Knowles see it as process oriented: a process in which individuals take the initiative, with or without the help of others, in diagnosing their learning needs, formulating learning goals, identifying human and material resources for learning, choosing and implementing appropriate learning strategies, and evaluating learning outcomes. (Scott, 1998, p. 302) This definition implies that the learner carries out the activities more commonly assumed by a teacher.
    • Many learners are ill-prepared for the self-directed learning process and that process is more focused on institutional requirements such as curriculum, grading, methods, and teacher skills rather than on the learners themselves. (Scott, 1998, p. 302)
  • Personality
    • Alternatively, others advocate "moving beyond the focus on self-directed learning as a set of activities in a self-instructional process to a study of the motivational, cognitive and affective characteristics or personalities of self-directed learners. And that process dimension is overly "mechanistic" and contends that self-directed learning is an "internal change in consciousness" which "occurs when process and reflection are married in the adult's pursuit of meaning" (Scott, 1998, p. 303)
  • Multi-Dimensional
    • the external technical dimension is fused with the internal reflective dimension.
    • Developmental view:
      • hierarchies of development are represented by "transformations"
      • a broader lifespan, cognitive development framework would contribute the development of self-directed learning characteristics.

  • Personal Responsibility Orientation Model (PROM): self-direction in learningrefers to both the external characteristics of an instructional process and the internal characteristics of the learner, where the individual assumes primary responsibility for a learning experience. (Scott, 1998, p. 303)
    • Personality/Goal: learner self-direction refers to the personality characteristics of the learner. It is the internal, psychological component.
      • self-determination (autonomy): to be in control of one's destiny.
      • self-management: willingness and capacity to conduct one's own education
    • Process/Method: Self-directed learning refers to the characteristics of the teacher-learning process. It is the external, methodological component.
      • learner-control: a mode of instruction in formal educational settings whereby the learner assumes increasing levels of control over the instructional process; for example, independent study.
      • autodidaxy: the individual, non-institutional pursuit of learning.

  • Characteristics of the Self-Directed Learner
    • BIG controversy: "the search for the definitive qualities of the self-directed learner is doomed to fail. (Scott, 1998, p. 304)
    • educational experiences, not age, were more important indicators of self-directedness.
    • Inconclusive research: self-directed learners are less dependent on external sources of information and support or that learners who require more structured forms of support may respond well to some self-directed learning methods such as pre-packaged, self-paced learning materials. (Scott, 1998, p. 304/5)
    • Personal autonomy is an essential concept or component in all self-directed learning definitions -- autonomy is characterized as the ability or willingness of individuals to take control of their own learning that determines their potential for self-direction.
    • BUT some challenge the individualism that pervades these concepts or question the independence as the desired aim.
    • feminist authors: autonomy must be couples with interdependence and interconnectedness, as independent autonomous behaviour is high dependent on socially mediated norms. The value of independence or self-reliance is an illusion and adults are trapped in other forms of dependence if they are not aware of the necessity of mediation by others.

  • Social Context of self-directed learning
    • Criticism: many conceptualizations of self-directed learning have focused solely on the individual learner and paid scant attention to the social aspects of the learning environment. Some say that individualistic" foundations of self-directed learning preclude adequate attention to socio-political structures
    • Two general responses: interactional and structural
      • interactional perspective: self-directed learning does NOT necessarily imply a solitary, isolated experience and that one associates with others and also seeks out others' assistance. (Scott, 1998, p. 305)--autonomy starts with heteronomy--relation to others is fundamental to knowledge. (Scott, 1998, p. 306)
      • Structural perspective:introduce societal issues based on an enduring inequitable distribution of power and control. The learning situation will determine the power that learners may have over their learning activity.
        • humanist approaches tend to conceal the fact that the pedagogical relationship is a power relationship and
        • feminists/critical adult educators point out the asymmetrical power relationships between teacher and learner within the classroom.
      • Knowles' and Tough's "decontextualized and abstract concept of the self forgets that we are social individuals, {and forgets} that we cannot understand the socially constructed self apart from class and gender structures"
  • The "Self" in Self-Directed Learning
    • many assume that self-directed learning is a cognitive, conscious and unified phenomenon and some question the "unified self" and introduce the notion of unconscious learning processes. The notions on "self" as an independent and fully conscious actor are challenged.
    • Some concerned about the soul postulate that feelings, emotions, motivations, and dynamics emerge from a transcendent or an unconscious core which actually fuels the rational decision-making abilities of the learner. (Scott, 1998, p. 307)
  • Methods and Strategies for self-directed learning(Scott, 1998, p. 308/9)
    • Opinion #1: self-directed learning is a natural and universal characteristic of adults and advocate learning environments that have minimal constraints
    • Opinion #2: self-directed learning skills can be identified and discreetly targeted for instruction--> learning how to learn, competency-based instruction, study skills sessions, time management seminars and assertiveness training, ...
    • Opinion #3: autonomous behaviour is not taught or learned as ordinary content in the curriculum.. we must provide a learning environment in which the learners are encouraged to make autonomous judgments. This encourages increasing levels of learner control over the instructional process. (most commonly advocated form of self-directed learningmethodology.)
      • two interrelated themes must be taken into account: learning styles or situations and developmental progression.
      • many conclude that instructional difficulties are often caused by a mismatch between learners and teachers, see graphic below.
Self-Directed Learner, Graphical representation of a paragraph from Scott, 1998, p.309
Challenges and Critiques of Self-Directed Learning
  • Assumption #1: self-directed learning can be taught. Candy (as cited in Scott, 1998, p. 310) questions this, "adult educators are confronted with at paradox: How can they assume the existence of certain circumstances at the outset, and at the same time hold those circumstances to be the desired goal or outcome of their activities?" This in inherently contradictory. ... love this one... " ...adult education discourse where the adult is led down the path of autonomy." Gibbons, et al: "The systematic implementation, evaluation and modification of self-directed learning programs will continue until we have a set of principles which generate practices that enable people to become expert without formal training." and once we find these principles then we can translate these principles into teachable strategies, but this again implies that this "self-directed learning" in no longer self-directed learning!!!
  • Assumption #2:Caffarela (as cited in Scott, 1998, p. 311) says, "What differentiates self-directed learning from learning in more traditional formal settings is that the learner chooses to assume the primary responsibilities for planning, carrying out, and evaluation of those learning experiences." This prompts the questions, In what traditional formal situations are adults really
    • so free as to be unrestrained by dominant cultural practices and socio-political processes? (The two types of social contexts are interactional and structural. At first I thought that this may be a bit extreme, but I get it now. )
    • so directed that they are not able to choose?

Self-Directed Learning in Formal Educational Institutions (Scott, 1998, p. 311/12)
  • Some publications say it is possible and others are skeptical. Some discuss hidden forms of external control within format settings which work against self-directed learning (structural issues, such as teacher-student power issues). Example, even in independent study the "ghost" of the teacher is still evident.
  • When I choose my "electives" for my MDE I do not call this self-directed learning, I am choosing between options already defined by Athabasca U.
  • Different learning skills are needed for formal versus natural learning situations. (Remember: learner-control: a mode of instruction in formal educational settings whereby the learner assumes increasing levels of control over the instructional process; for example, independent study; and autodidaxy the individual, non-institutional pursuit of learning.) Candy states that "...there may be something incongruous about attempts to enhance the ability of learners to function independently outside the structure of formal institution, from within the institutions themselves" (again perhaps a paradox, Candy calls it practicing "pseudoautonomy.")
  • Candy, "Autonomy is the quality of being able to choose dependence or independence."

  • aka world of everyday life - the total sphere of experiences of an individual which is circumscribed by the objects, persons, and events encountered in the pursuit of the pragmatic objectives of living. It is a "world" in which a person is "wide-awake" and which asserts itself as the "paramount reality" of his life" --Schutz (as cited in Scott, 1998, p. 55)
  • lifeworld incorporates community-forming processes that actively and passively shape it into a social world. (Scott, 1998, p. 55)
  • think of social constructing your own reality.

Accommodate status quo -
Adaptation -

From this blog in the UK, http://lizit.me.uk/category/self-directed-learning/
From this blog in the UK, http://lizit.me.uk/category/self-directed-learning/

Philosophy of Education
  • Good Quote: " ...techniques will constitute directionless motion and remain at a superficial, even ineffectual level until the purpose of education and its relationship to life and society are considered." (Lange, 2006, p. 92) Scott book.
  • When we leave our belief package at a habitual level rather than making it conscious, ... guardians are then required to tell citizens what to think and how to do things. (Lange, 2006, p. 93) Scott book. This makes me think of relying on the mentors in a Teaching and Learning Center in institutions.
  • ...developing a working philosophy is a moral/ethical process in which educators identify what they value most, what knowledge is most important, and towards which social vision they are working. (Lange, 2006, p. 93) Scott book
  • As Plato originally suggested you cannot explain why you are doing what your are doing until you have formulated a clear, articulate, discussable system of ideas and principles that can stand up to cross-examination. (Lange, 2006, p. 93) Scott book

  • Classical
    • Idealism
    • Realism
    • Neo-Scholasticism (Neo-Thomism)
  • Modern
    • Pragmatism
    • Existentialism
  • Contemporary
    • Progressivism
    • Perennialism
    • Essentialism
    • Constructivism
    • Behaviorism (Inner behavourism is called cognitive psychology)
    • Anarchism
    • Reconstructivism

Philosophy - critical analysis of assumptions or beliefs. Study of knowledge in general. Theories. (Oxford English Dictionary: the love, study, or pursuit of wisdom, or of knowledge of things and their causes, whether theoretical or practical."
  • Metaphysics - the study of questions concerning the nature of reality
    • Cosmology - origins, nature, development of universe
    • Theology - god
    • Anthropology - humankind
    • Ontology - Nature of existence and what it means tor everything to be. study of world objects, properties, and relations. Ex., Paving slab.
  • Epistemology - The study of the nature of truth, knowledge and how they are attained. Logical proof The study of knowledge and justification. E., How we we know it is a paving slab?
  • Axiology - the study of questions of value
    • Ethics - morals, values, conduct
    • Aesthetics - appreciation beauty and art

Psychology - arising from the mind/emotions. How and why a person acts. Proven true. Applied involving scientific study.

Is psychology a subset of philosophy? Where does psychology fit into philosophy? Does it?

*many people use the term "late" instead of "post", as post signifies the end and we are not past colonialism we shouldn't be calling it postcolonialism.
(Fenwick, 2006, page 105-7)

Age of Enlightenment
  • The individual is dominated by tradition (Catholic Church).
  • truth and reason
  • unity (meaning, theory, and self)
  • rationality
  • Kant defines enlightenment as "man's emergence from his self-imposed immaturity. Immaturity is the inability to sue one's understanding without guidance from another. This immaturity is i when its cause lies not in lack of understanding, but in lack of resole and courage to use it without guidance from another.... 'Have courage to use your own understanding!'--that's the motto of enlightenment."

  • “Modernism is that moment when man invented himself; when he no longer saw himself as a reflection of God or Nature” (Cooper and Burrell, 1988: 94).
  • The enlightenment–humanist rejection of tradition and authority in favour of reason and natural science. This is founded upon the assumption of the autonomous individual as the sole source of meaning and truth. Progress and novelty are valorized within a linear conception of history—a history of a "real" world that becomes increasingly real or objectified. One could view this as a Protestant mode of consciousness.
  • Industrialization of production (technologies)
  • Positivist faith in objective knowledge of phenomena
  • Demographic upheaval/ Massive urban migration
  • Growth of consumer capitalism
  • Rise of multinational corporations
  • “Instrumental” rationality and bureaucracy
  • Powerful mass media systems
  • Growth of nation-states
  • Fluctuating world economy

  • A rejection of the sovereign autonomous individual with an emphasis upon anarchic collective, anonymous experience. Collage, diversity, the mystically unrepresentable, Dionysian passion are the foci of attention. Most importantly we see the dissolution of distinctions, the merging of subject and object, self and other. (link)Disintegration of colonial system historically ruled by imperial nation-states
  • Decline of industrial capitalism and rise of transnational, info-age economy
  • Rise of global electronic and print media systems, collapsing traditional time and space
  • Rise of new creative, artistic practices that reject modernism’s linearity, coherence, realism, and internal consciousness.
  • Suspicion and rejection of “foundational” narratives of Western culture that traditionally have authorized the dominant institutions.
  • Erosion of traditional identities premised on stability and essence

  • Premodern
  • Modern
  • Postfoundational - resistance to universalism and the Enlightenment's modernistic promises of order ans growth. Deconstructs the grand narratives/myths of progress, rationalism, classification, and the Enlightenment's assurance that scientific progress would be the cure for all that ails us. It owes much to early philosophical movements such as skepticism. It is a lens through which to see the world and a habit of mind that is constantly questioning doubting, and challenging or deconstructing.(p. 107)
    • Postmodernism - challenges unitary selfhood (the authentic self) and points out that identity is shifting and uncertain, which makes an objective and knowable world impossible.
      • Reaction - fundamentally neoconservative and aims to maintain the existing power structure while teaching the traditional virtues of obedience, social order, self-discipline, and responsibility. (Fenwick, 2006, page 102)
      • Resistance - resists the deepest levels of oppression; therefore, the feminist movement often embraces this postmodernism as a way to affirm that the male experience cannot be generalized to women, that women have many different experiences among them that cannot be boiled down into neat packages that may be oppressive. (Fenwick, 2006, page 102)
      • Engagement - tries to move beyond theories based on resistance or prescribing "the right thing to do" by assisting people in ethical thinking. It tries to maintain the emancipatory intent of the Enlightenment goal while recognizing multiplicity and contingency. (Fenwick, 2006, page 102)
    • Postcolonialism - arises from conditions of European colonization and direct itself to issues of race, diaspora, and issues of polarized geography and identity.
    • Poststructuralism
      • is a resistance to structuralism and tends to focus on the interrelationship of knowledge, discourse, and power.
      • disenchantment with the sureties of modernism, and particularly with structuralism's belief that there is a base structure or analyzable system to all reality (Fenwick, 2006, page 109)
      • power is embedded in the complex web of relationships and discourse

Resource: A good overview of Postmodernism, Poststructuralism, Postcolonialism, and Deconstruction

Note: I can't figure out what is the difference between a philosophical and psychological orientation, and I think they are all messed up in my charts, and I just started adding info under the wrong heading--I was tired and lazy.

Interactive Timeline

Philosophical Orientations
Related Learning Theories
Related Educational Philosophies
Curricular Emphasis
Plato, Augustine, Descartes, Berkely, Kant, Hegel, Royce
Reality is spiritual or mental. Knowing is recalling; values, absolute. We construct world.Ideas are the only true reality and the only thing worth knowing. The world we see around us is just shadows of a more genuinely real world, a world of ideas. Eternal truths are possible Focus: Mind
Faculty Psychology - Exercises for the mind and/or Information Processing – encoding, storage, and retrieval of information. Teacher centered.
Perennialism Focus: Everlasting and truths which are constant and unchanging through great literature, art, philosophy, and religion.
Aims to teach students to think by exposing them to ideas. Lecture and discussion
Literature, history, philosophy, religion
Aristotle, James, Aquinas, Spencer, Kant, Locke, Bacon, Whitehead, Russel
Reality exist unperceived. Values are natural and absolute. Knowledge comes via the senses. Reality exists independent of the human mind. The world we experience is not some dim copy of reality but the real
thing. Truth is fixed by natural laws. Focus: Body
Behaviorism - Reinforcement of responses to stimuli; observe and imitate others. Teacher centered.
Essentialism Focus: Teach the common core, "the basics" of information and skills (cultural heritage) needed for citizenship. (Curriculum can change slowly)
Aims to teach students the knowledge and skills (literary, computational, analytical) necessary to understand the world around them. Emphasis on mastery of facts and basic skills through lecture, demonstration and recitation.
Science and math and other facts. Emphasizes phonics in reading skills. Said to be the basis of “No Child Left Behind.”
Neo-Thomism (neo scholasticism)
Thomas Aquinas, Etienne Gilson,
Jacques Maritain
Reality is the universal truth of God lasting and unchanging throughout time. This truth is revealed through the Scriptures and divine revelation and supported by human reason. Focus: Soul
Behaviorism - Reinforcement of responses to stimuli; observe and imitate others. Teacher centered.
Neo-Scholasticism, Secular Neo- Thomism, Essentialism Focus: Everlasting and truths which are constant and unchanging through great literature, art, philosophy, and religion.
Aims to teach students the knowledge and skills (literary, computational, and analytical) necessary to understand the world around them as revealed by God. Emphasis on mastery of facts and basic skills through lecture, demonstration and recitation.
Christian doctrine, avoid exposure to harmful teachings and literature, the classics including Latin and Greek. Teach through the systematic study and analysis of the great works of religion, philosophy, literature & history.
Rousseau, kant, James, Pierce, Dewey, Wittgenstein, Darwin
Knowledge is what works. Truth is warranted assertion values are relative. Universe is dynamic, evolving. Purpose of thought is action. Truth is relative. Focus: Experience
Cognitivism/Constructivism - Learner actively constructs own understanding of reality through interaction with environment and reflection. Student-centered.
Progressivism Focus: Ideas should be tested by active experimentation. Learning rooted in questions of learners in interaction with others. Experience and student centered.
Learning through experience. Aims to prepare students for life based on practical experiences. Problem solving and hands-on active learning and project methods.
Society which dictates the curriculum. Learner makes choices in the objectives. Active learning methods to stimulate the student’s curiosity and learning with consequences. Avoid parroting memorized bits of information.
Hegel, Kierkegaard, Sartre, Jaspers, Neill
Individuals construct their own reality. We are what we do. Deciding precedes knowing. Reality is subjective, within the individual. Individual rather than external
standards. Focus: Freedom
Humanism - Growth as a whole person including physical, mental, emotional, and moral development. Goal is self actualization.
Reconstructionism/Critical Theory Focus: Critical pedagogy where knowledge, grounded in the experiences of students and teachers alike, is produced through meaningful dialogue.
Individual as entity within social context ; focuses on the experiences of the individual ;
helps learners focus on the meaning of their learning, their life, their truth ; emphasizes creative choice, the subjectivity of human experience, and concrete acts of human existence ; schools must allow students freedom of choice ; freedom has rules and respect for the freedom of others is essential ; schools should allow students to ask their own questions, conduct their own inquiries, and draw their own conclusions
Subject matter of personal choice
Brameldm, Counts
school should take the lead in changing or reconstructing society; reaction to the cold war climate and threat after WWII; schools should both transmit knowledge about the existing social order but also seek to reconstruct it as well; belief in bringing the community into the classroom; actively seek to create a world wide democracy

Dewey, Kilpatrick, Rouseau
Children are naturally good. The child’s needs and interests are relevant to the curriculum.; education should be child centered; curriculum should be derived from students’ interests; effective teaching takes into account the whole child; learning is active, not passive; knowledge that is true in the present may not be true in the future so students need to be taught problem solving strategies; the teacher is a guide or resource to help students learn about what

Progressivism protests against an emphasis on universal truth, at the expense of experience and relevance.
The Purpose of Schooling: to focus on a democratic society, to encourage cooperation,to develop problem-solving and decision-making skills.
The Nature of the Learner: Students learn by doing, They can set their own objectives for learning, They can work together to solve problems, They can make classroom rules, They are able to test and evaluate ideas.
Curriculum: experience-centered,child-centered, growth-centered.
Instructional Methods: cooperative group activities, project method, scientific method, problem solving, decision making.
Classroom Management: democratic, participatory, self-directed.
Assessment: formative evaluation, ongoing feedback.
The Teacher: a facilitator and guide, a director of learning, a collaborative partner.
Hutchins, Alder, Maritain
Some knowledge is eternally valid. Education cultivates intellect.
views truth as a constant; education is to ensure that students acquire knowledge of unchanging principles or great ideas; great ideas have the best potential of solving the problems of any era; curriculum should stress students’ growth in arts and sciences; students should become “culturally literate” by studying the best , most significant works that humans have created; aim to teach students to become critical thinkers

The Purpose of Schooling:to teach eternal truths, to cultivate the rational intellect, to develop a spiritual nature, to prepare
The Nature of the Learner: Students are rational beings of value and worth., They have an intellect and a soul.
Perennialism protests against secularization and against excessive focus on science and technology at the expense of reason.
Curriculum: Christian doctrine, Great Books and the liberal arts, character training and moral development
Instructional Methods: didactic instruction, coaching, Socratic Method
Classroom Management: train the will, time on task, precision and order, orderliness and structure
Assessment: objective exams and essay exams
The Teacher: educated in the liberal arts, an authority figure; disseminator of the truth, a “director of mental calisthenics”, an intellectual coach
believe that human culture has a core of common knowledge that schools are obliged to transmit to students in a systematic, disciplined way; believe that there is a body of essential knowledge and skills that all humans need to know; schools should provide sound instruction that is aimed at preparing students to live life and comply with society’s accepted standards and need for order.

Information from: Simplified Comparison of the Major Philosophies of Education and A Synopisis of “Schools of Philosophy” Charts with Comparisons from Other Sources

For another good overview go to this website: http://www.fsu.edu/~adult-ed/jenny/philosophy.html

Psychological Orientations

Concepts and key words
Role of learner
Role of instructor
seeking to produce the cultured, educated person; liberal and progressive educators generally agree on the prescribed ends for adult education; cultivate the intellect = knowledge of facts+ systematic grasp on subject matter or discipline + the ability to critically assess and analyze = to achieve the ultimate goal (wisdom)
development of rational, intellectual powers and the transmission of organized content knowledge through disciplinary study; value the education of minds in general over training people for specific jobs or careers
developing learners who have a basic knowledge about the world in which they live and hone the learner’s ability to analyze and synthesize a situation to make decisions
Study, reflection and the consumption of authoritative knowledge have characterized liberal learning;
role of the educator as an expert, a subject-matter authority whose function it is to transmit a fixed body of knowledge to the neophyte learner; Control of the teaching-learning transaction is unquestionably the prerogative of the teacher. The expert authority ans knowledge of teachers are privileged over those of learners.

Critique: assumptions that the ultimate questions and truths of existence are universal across culture and history.
Learner centered; problem focused; use of inductive methods of science for arriving at knowledge; emphasis on science for the betterment of society; education that will support democracy; an emphasis on pragmatism, utilitarianism, social reform; and experimentalism
Real world or practical; including a holistic view of education as both lifelong and life-wide, encompassing all aspects of living and learning; an instrument of social development; learning proceeds by experience
vocational and utilitarian training that betters the individual, society, and the organization; educational needs have been predetermined (either by the individual or his peers) as pragmatic and immediately applicable to that individual’s livelihood.
Stresses the authority of science, the use of experimental method, and problem solving (this stems from pragmatism-ideas have no value unless they are proved useful through application.).
to facilitate learning processes by organizing, guiding and evaluating learning experiences while engaged in such experiences him or herself; though not fully egalitarian, the teacher and learner relationship is co-dependent and collaborative
mastery model to such advanced practices as learning objects linked to behavioural objectives, personalization of content based on gap analysis, and competency modeling; clear and measurable outcomes
Educational behaviourism focuses on observable, measurable behaviour and emphasizes the control of behaviour through the manipulation of environmental conditions.
adopted by corporate training because it is grounded in psychological principles that efficiently produce overt, observable, and measurable outcomes, which are popular in corporate environments that are also focused on measurable results
training that teaches learners rote behaviours through drill and practice; The teacher is a behavioural engineer who plans in detail the conditions necessary to bring about desired behaviour on the part of the learner.
based on the belief that desirable human behaviour can be the product of design, not accident; our behaviour is determined by forces in our environ- ment that shape our behaviour; learning conforms to a basic stimulus-response model ( operant conditioning); teachers can create learners who respond by 1. Identifying the desired behaviours in concrete terms 2. Establishing a procedure for recording specific behaviours and counting their frequencies 3. for each behaviour, identify an appropriate reinforcer 4. ensure that students receive the appropriate reinforcer as soon as possible after displaying the desired behaviour

Behaviorism protests against importance placed on mental processes that cannot be observed, such as thinking and motivation.
The Purpose of Schooling: to increase appropriate behaviors, to decrease inappropriate behaviors
to teach new behaviors.
The Nature of the Learner: Students are capable of learning new behavior and of changing behavior.
Curriculum: cognitive problem solving, critical-thinking skills.
Instructional Methods: reinforcement, programmed instruction, computer-assisted instruction, problem solving, anger control, self-instruction and self-reinforcement.
Classroom Management: identify expected behavior, establish procedures and routines, Monitor/observe, use rewards and penalties.
Assessment: behavioral objectives, performance contracting, self-assessment.
The Teacher: behavioral engineer, controller of behavior, arranger of contingencies.
focus on processes of learning rather than on learning behaviour; believe that students construct understanding of the material to be learned; support student centered curriculum
focus on mental processes and strategies that students use to lear; see learning as an active, meaning-making process; students are continuously involved in making sense of the things that happen around them; teachers must realize that students’ learning is influenced by prior knowledge, experience, attitudes, and social; interactions

Adults have unique life experiences and thus are unique.
Tend to conceal the fact that the pedagogical relationship is a power relationship (Scott, 1998, p.306)
Personal growth
concerned with the development of the whole person, with emphasis on the emotional and affective dimensions of the learner; education must address the unique abilities and needs of the individual adult
highly motivated and self-directed; learners assume full responsibility for learning; learning that is driven by the learner, as opposed to learning mandated from some outside authority
guides, organizers of learning, and helpers; help learners decide their own learning paths and rely heavily on communication and collaboration tools; believes in the innate potential of the individual and sees education as a vehicle by which that potential can be realized
Social reform
belief that social, political, and economic changes (not just changes but radical changes) can be brought about through education

raise awareness
Post Modern
(Fenwick, 2006, p 102)
Postmodernism is not being able to determine truth, about the ambiguity of knowledge, about the limits of thinking imposed from within a certain historical period (enlightenment), and about the multiplicity of experience in the world. Postmodernism became an attitude of "unmaking"--it deconstructs all the knowledge from the modern period through a "critique of critique"
Suspicious of all preceding meanings and values.
reaction - maintain the existing power structure while teaching the traditional virtues of obedience, social order, self-discipline, and responsibility.
Resistance - resist the deepest levels of oppression.
Engagement - move beyond the theories based on resistance or prescribing the "right thing to do" by assisting people in ethical thinking. It tries to maintain the emancipatory intent of Enlightenment goals while recognizing multiplicity and contingency.

Criticisms: to fragmented to guide action and too relativistic. Lacks firm ground for knowledge making, propose an extreme relativization of moral ground, and vigorously oppose any attempt to formulate a new integrated world view.

It is a deconstruction of tradition, which questions and grand narratives that continue relations of dominance to the point of questioning reason itself.
Argues for seeing the aims of education more in terms of its effect on the individual and its utility to the individual and less in terms of its social implications.
In 1984, this was subsumed under Liberal.

Table 1. Five Philosophies of Adult Education (Developed by L. M. Zinn and Elias and Merriam, 1980). Found on this webpage.
Your Final Score
L =
B =
P =
H =
R =
Liberal Adult Education (Classical, Traditional)
Behaviorist Adult Education
Progressive Adult Education
Humanistic Adult Education
Radical Adult Education (Reconstructionist)
To develop intellectual powers of the mind; to make a person literate in the broadest sense—intellectually, morally, spiritually, aesthetically
To bring about behavior that will ensure survival of the human species, societies, and individuals; To promote behavioral change
To transmit cultural and society structure; to promote social change; to give earners practical knowledge and problem-solving skills
To enhance personal growth and development; to facilitate self-actualization
To bring about through education fundamental social, political, and economic changes in society
“Renaissance person;” cultured; always a learner; seeks knowledge rather than just information; conceptual and theoretical understanding
Learner takes an active role in learning, practicing new behavior and receiving feedback: strong environmental influence
Learner needs, interests, and experiences are key elements in learning; people have unlimited potential to be developed through education
Learner is highly motivated and self-directed; assumes responsibility for own learning
Equality with teacher in learning process; personal autonomy; people create history and culture by combining reflection with action
The “expert,” transmitter of knowledge; authoritative; clearly directs learning process
Manager; controller; predicts and directs learning outcomes
Organizer; guides learning through experiences that are educative; stimulates, instigates, and evaluates learning process
Facilitator; helper; partner; promotes but does not direct learning
Coordinator; suggests but does not determine direction for learning; equality between teacher and learner
Concepts/Key Words:
Liberal learning for its own sake; rational, intellectual education; general education; traditional knowledge; classical humanism
Stimulus-response; behavior modification; competency-based; mastery learning; behavioral objectives, trial and error,; skill training; feedback; reinforcement
Problem-solving; experience-based education; democracy; lifelong learning; pragmatic knowledge; needs assessment; social responsibility
Experiential learning; freedom; individuality; self-directedness; interactive; openness; authenticity; ambiguity; feelings
Consciousness-raising; praxis; noncompulsory learning; autonomy; social action; deinstitutionalization; literacy training
Lecture; didactic; study groups; contemplation; critical reading and discussion
Programmed instruction; contract learning; teaching machines; computer-assisted instruction; practice and reinforcement
Problem-solving; scientific method; activity method; experimental method; project method; inductive method
Experiential; group tasks; group discussion; team teaching; self-directed learning; individualized learning; discovery method
Dialogue; problem-posing; maximum interaction; discussion groups
Socrates, Aristotle, Adler, Kallen, Van Doren, Houle; Great Books; Lyceum; Chautauqua; Elderhostel; Center for the Study of Liberal Education
Skinner, Thorndike, Watson, Tyler; APL (Adult Performance Level); competency based teacher education; behavioral modification programs
Spencer, Dewey, Bergevin, Sheats, Lindeman, Benne, Blakely; ABE; ESL; citizenship education; community schools; cooperative extension; schools without walls
Rogers, Maslow, Knowles, May, Tough, McKenzie; encounter groups; group dynamics; self-directed learning projects; human relations training; Esalen Institute
Brameld, Holt, Kozol, Freire, Goodman, Illich, Ohliger; Freedom Schools; Friere’s literacy training; free schools

Unit 2 Education for Economy

Human resources: human element in productive organizations and this distinguishes employees from other resources such as materials, machines, and infrastructure because they are useful to the organization through what they do. (Fenwick, 2006, p.165)

Resource: something that one transforms, uses, or exploits in order to derive some benefit.

Capital: something that one owns and as such it possesses intrinsic value for individuals and for society.

Knowledge Capital: Just like physical capital, it can be acquired (through education) and preserved (through continuing education) and can yield dividends in the form of productivity and the wealth of whoever owns it. BUT it cannot be separated from its holder, and its value is entirely depended on that person's capacity to apply his or her knowledge in an economically profitable enterprise.

Human Capital: the abilities and skills of any individual, esp those acquired through investment in education and training, that enhance potential income earning (http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Human+Capital)

(Fenwick, 2006)
  1. high school and college education ... greatly raise a person's income
  2. as the cost of higher education rises, the income of education professionals also rises
  1. our education system is an instrument of social stratification rather than one of its "natural" causes. What happens when too many people gain access to higher education? (p.167)... The value of education diminished when too many are educated.
  2. if knowledge produced wealth then there would be no theoretical limit to the yields of human capital. As the world becomes more and more knowledgeable, it should also become more and more prosperous, indefinitely. Does education actually improve a person's economic productivity, or does it just separate low earners form high earners by acting as a selection criterion?... Education could simply provide signals ("credentials") about talents and abilities rather than determine real economic potential. Or education is one important factor in a person's cultural capital, which in turn determines largely where an individual stand on the social-economic ladder. (p.167)
  3. when promoting knowledge-based economy is that by creating a policy system that values how people apply their knowledge, we are overlooking their other contributions that, in the absence of such policy, would receive more adequate support. (p. 168)
  4. By using human knowledge(associated with ownership_ rather than work (associated with production) as the new criterion for attributing value, we are in effect saying that the economy is legitimately owned by "those who know" and that economic policy should therefore by guided to meet their ends.(p. 168)

Economic and Social Responsibility
Malthusian physiocratic view of economics- places the Earth's natural resources as the ultimate source of all wealth, as well as the precepts of mercantilism.
Mercantilism - advocates upholding a strong local economic protectionism for the benefit of the feudal classes (like the caste system) and the Sovereign (rulers).

Work and Employment (p.170)
  1. the productive role of a person in a profitable enterprise (economic definition)
  2. the exchange of a person's time and work for remuneration (economic definition)
  3. the way in which much of human activity is organized in our society. (sociological definition)
We need to balance economical with sociological decisions--example of the plant closures.

Human capital theory promotes the competition among individuals for the privileges associated with employment, using a meritocratic system based on the ownership of knowledge. (p.171) (meritocratic - A system in which advancement is based on individual ability or achievement. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/meritocratic)

(Fenwick, 2006, Chapter 14)
Neoliberalism is an ideology that asserts social progress can occur as a result of economic liberalism. Broadly speaking, neoliberalism seeks to transfer control of the economy from public to the private sector, under the belief that it will produce a more efficient government and improve the economic health of the nation. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neoliberalism)

The current promotion of lifelong learning, with an emphasis on adult learning, signals a deconstruction of welfare through a reconstruction of citizenship as the responsibility of an individual to an economic agenda. (p. 173)

1st Generation of lifelong learners, 1970s, advocated personal development and to "make themselves" rather than "be made". They saw a strong role in civil society, equality, democratization. Education is viewed as enabling individuals to control and adapt to change. (p. 174) (Strong role for civil society; NGOs were important., p. 175)

2nd generation of lifelong learners, 1980s, "education for economy" became the catchphrase for those dissatisfied with the status quo of education. The human capital thinking was picked up by politics and promoted the idea that " in a competitive market economy those who are adaptive to the knowledge economy, as well as marketable, tend to succeed; whereas whose who do not possess the necessary skills and technological know how struggle to stay afloat. Learning is viewed as a mechanism for individuals to adjust to a society that was shaped without their input (p. 174) (Strong role for privileged the market, downplayed the role of the state, and almost completely neglected civil society; privatization and deregulation of public education. Interests of business were privileged and the sector was given the lead role in defining what competencies and skills the public adult education system should produce. p. 175/6)

3rd generation of lifelong learners, 1990s. politicians "softened" and realized that the public was disgruntled with free-market capitalism and its seeming disregard for social and individual issues, so they changed and are no longer exclusively concerned with human capital issues, but include social purposes (social cohesion, civic participation, democracy back into politics).
Critics: up-skilling, training, or lifelong leaning are conceived mainly in terms of generating wealth and competitiveness for individuals and the county. (p. 175) Shift in balance between civil society, state, and market. The market still has a central role in adult learning, but the responsibilities of the individual and the state are also visible.

(Fenwick, 2006, Chapter 15)
Four issues in current workplace learning literature:
1. Lifelong learning amidst changing forms of work (p. 190/1)
  • problems with focusing on training workers' skills
    • worker's effective participation relies more on complex interplays of contextual practices, individual meanings of the activity, and organizational politics than it does in individual skills; also, a skill approach is a fragmented, gendered, and inaccurate way to understand human knowledge and learning process
    • workers are in fact over trained and underemployed; the main problem is that organizations do not seem able or willing to provide workers with opportunities to apply the vase unrecognized skills and knowledge that they have already developed.
    • there is no empirical evidence that shows that basic skill training corresponds positively with organizational productivity or even to worker's employability.
  • learning can be simultaneously reproductive and transformative learning.
  • reproductive learning accommodates workers to exploitive, hierarchical structures; subjugates people; and reproduces existing (inequitable) power relations.
  • learning in work as combining organizational learning, definition of self, and solidarity learning.
  • solidarity is not necessarily political--engaging in social action to challenge their status, but ie when workers such as immigrant women learn to develop a collective identity and share strategies for negotiating their lives as non-English-speaking immigrants.
2. Subjectivities developing in work--
  • Subjectivity refers to a person's perspective or opinion, particular feelings, beliefs, and desires. Much of scientific evidence, statistics and methods of measurement are considered subjective although the term is frequently used casually to refer to personal opinions. In philosophy, the term can either be contrasted with or linked with objectivity. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subjectivity)
3. Processes of practice-based (informal) learning--
  • Practice-based perspectives of workplace learning are concerned instead with what kinds of learning are embedded in particular sociocultural activities, tools, and communities in which people participate.
  • Reflection during and after the "doing" supposedly transforms experience into knowledge, which can then be represented and generalized to new contexts. Critics have maintained that the emphasis on reflection is simplistic and reductionist, overemphasizes ration thought, and understates the unpredictable social tangles of everyday practice in which people develop.
4. Justice, equity, and human rights in workplace learning--

(Spencer, 2006, Chapter 2)

Canada's GDP
Primary sector
  • agriculture, mining, fishing, etc.
  • 26% in 1920 and 5% today
  • this sector was never dominant in Canada or never more than 1/3 of western countries GDP

Secondary sector
  • manufacturing and construction
  • 30% in 1920 & 1970, but today 25%

Tertiary Sector
  • services--government, personal and financial, entertainment, etc.
  • 35% in 1920 to 61% today
  • largest contributor to GDP

Other sector (10% of GDP)

The shift in Canada is not so much from industrial to post-industrial as from primary production to tertiary activities. The tertiary sector has grown faster than the other two sectors changing the balance of the economy. (p. 26/27)

We are not in a post-capitalist phase either. Think of
  • transnational corporations
  • CEOs' salary (high paying even when the company is doing poorly)
  • shareholdings for companies are highly concentrated among the wealthy
  • the riches 20% of the population retain 40% of all income and the poorest 20% have just 6%
  • personally help wealth (property, cars, shares, etc.) the richest 20% own more than 50% own total wealth
  • company share ownership is more concentrated 66% of the largest Canadian corporations were controlled by a single owner or family (year 2000)

Canadian Knowledge workers
  • 10% of population works in in ICT and science industries
  • only 50% of workers in ICT and science industries are knowledge workers
  • Not in ICT or science industries: 17% in 1981 and now 12% (decline in knowledge workers in other sectors)
  • Total workforce: 20% employed in knowledge work
  • Stats Canada notes that workers have been reporting that the opportunity to apply knowledge at work in in decline; deskilling rather than re-skilling is the norm and workers' knowledge is underemployed. While there may be specific skill shortages, Canada has, in general, a knowledgeable workforce, but not the jobs to match it. (p. 28)

Learning at Work
  • employers are paying more attention the the idea of workplace learning and are trying to harness such learning to meet organizational goals.
  • Some literature slips from discussing workplace learning --> empowerment --> industrial democracy, as if they were all the same.

Employees: Our most valuable resource
  • when companies get into trouble, they usually downsize/layoffs, then the work may be outsourced, never to return
  • two viewpoints (can work "equally well", but the first is more satisfying)
    • believe that the company's competitive advantage depends on a happy and committed workforce, and may work towards that end (full-time employees, higher skills, job flexibility, workplace learning)--Costco
    • believe that tight control of labour costs combined with close supervision over employees is the road to success (low-paid, part-time, routine jobs)--Wal-Mart

Human Capital Theory

Unit 3 Education for Transformation

(Paulo Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed, 1993, Chapter 3)

Conscientization refers to a type of learning which is focused on perceiving and exposing social and political contradictions. Conscientization also includes taking action against oppressive elements in one's life as part of that learning. (http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/conscientization)

Dialogue = reflection + action = praxis = true word = transform the world = name the world = action of creation and re-creation
unauthentic work ≠ transform reality (p. 87)
if action > reflection→ activism, action for action's sake. (p. 88)
if reflection > action→verbalism, empty words (p. 87)

Love, humbleness (versus arrogance), faith, hope --> create a climate that can foster mutual trust
Dialogue creates trust; however if any of Love, humble (versus arrogance), faith, hope are absent trust cannot be created. (p. 91)

Without faith in people dialogue is a farce which inevitably degenerates into paternalistic manipulation. (p. 91)

Critical thinking is (p. 92)
  • thinking which discerns an indivisible solidarity between the world and the people and admits of no dichotomy between them
  • thinking which perceives reality as process, as transformation, rather than as a static entity
  • thinking which does not separate itself from action, but constantly immerses itself in temporarily without fear of the risks involved.
  • an awareness of the social forces that are running our lives. (Fenwick, p. 154, Chapter 12, Sue Scott)

Critical thinking contrasts with naive thinking.

Naive thinking is
  • sees "historical time as a weight, a stratification of the acquisitions and experiences of the past, " from which the present should emerge normalized and "well-behaved"
  • the important thing is accommodation to this normalized "today"

Interesting: "Only dialogue, which requires critical thinking, is also capable of generating critical thinking." (p. 92)
  • I don't agree with this, as I believe critical thinking can exist separate from action.

Authentic education is not carried on by (p. 93)
  • A for B
  • A about B
  • but is A with B

Authentic humanism = "consists in permitting the emergence of the awareness of our full humanity, as a condition and as an obligation, as a situation and as a project." (p. 93/4)

For the truly humanist educator and the authentic revolutionary, the object of action is the reality to be transformed by them together with other people--not other men and women themselves. (p. 94)

Revolutionary leaders do not go to the people in order to bring them a message of salvation, but in order to come to know through dialogue with them both their objective situation and their awareness of that situation. (p. 95)

Limit-situations (p.99)
  • (originally) the impassable boundaries where possibilities end; they are not the frontier which separates being from nothingness
  • (Pinto) the real boundaries where all possibilities begin; they are the frontier which separates being from being more.

Limit-acts = actions directed at negating and overcoming, rather than passively accepting, the "given" (p.99)

It is not the limit-situation in and of themselves which create a climate of hopelessness, but rater how they are perceived by women and men at a given historical moment: whether they appear as fetters or as insurmountable barriers. (p. 99)

Themes:the concrete representation of ideas, values, concepts, and hopes, as well as the obstacles which impede the people's full humanization, constitute the themes of that epoch. (p. 101)

limit-situations contain themes and themes contain limit-situations. The tasks they imply require limit-acts. (p. 102)

The process of discovering the themes and the nuclei of the themes reminds me of analyzing text from a focus group looking for identifying codes and themes, then having further focus groups to drill into the discussion to verify codes and themes.

Not from book, but from The Praeger handbook of education and psychology, Volume 2, p. 358
There are only two ways people can relate with the world: integration or adaptation. Freire views people as subjects, not objects.
  • Integration involves the critical capacity to act on the world as a Subject
  • whereas adaptation is an Object, acted upon by the world

(Fenwick, 2006, Chapter 12: A way of seeing: transformation for a new century, Sue Scott)

Transformation = change or go beyond or across structure; a metamorphosis (p. 153)
  • trans = across, beyond, to the other side, through
  • form = structure

Two kinds of transformation: (p. 153)
  1. changes in adults' development; for example, changes from abstract formal reasoning to vision logic or into further spiritual developmental stages.
  2. perspective transformation, which would include changing several assumptions in a world view or frame of reference and is derived from a critical society theoretical paradigm. (To what extent to teachers participate in students' transformation?) (Freire's conscientiousness is a change in perspective and thus a transformation.)

Two most common frameworks used to help adult learners transform (p. 153/4)
  1. critical social paradigm - assumes that what is not known is an awareness of the social forces that are really running society.
  2. analytical depth paradigm - Jungian paradigm, transformative process must include awareness of something that is beneath the surface, that is not readily known to by an individual. It assumes that what is running society is unconscious material embedded in people who are unable or unwilling to delve into the dark, forbidden recesses of their psyches. (body work, soul work, and the spirituality of a people and to transform people have to pay attention to their dreams, their cultural mores, what they value, and what drives their behaviour. What guides society and behaviour is in the interior soul.) The person transforms first and then transforms society.

Personal transformation (p. 158)
What distinguishes change from transformation?

Structural view of transformation
  • when certain structures change, there is transformation.
  • the structural change involves cognitive shifts in meaning schemes and perspectives
  • When one reconstructs his or her meaning schemes through a dialogical process in a relatively safe group of people, there is a change in form in one's perspective toward that world view. Democracy does not look the same after experiencing it, dialoguing about it, and critically analyzing it.
  • Mezirow and Associate's theory, there is a reconstruction in the rational-ego structure, with some delving into the personal unconscious--that which we know but have not articulated or experienced fully. The personal unconscious is still within reaches of the rational; thus Mezirow and Associate's theory is primarily a rational restructuring of large perspectives, frameworks, or world views. (ego - In psychoanalysis, the division of the psyche that is conscious, most immediately controls thought and behavior, and is most in touch with external reality. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/ego)

Acknowledging the presence of the collective unconscious
  • In Jungian psychology, a part of the unconscious mind, shared by a society, a people, or all humankind, that is the product of ancestral experience and contains such concepts as science, religion, and morality.(http://www.thefreedictionary.com/collective+unconscious)
  • the collective unconscious is accessed primarily through dreams and fantasies, when one pays attention to one's dreams and fantasies, associates feelings and images with time and place occurrences in life, and acts on the meaning derived from this internal dialogue, one transforms over time.
  • a relationship with the collective unconscious, which we experience as more powerful than the rational function, requires silence, listening, meditation, time and caring individuals. Logic and words rarely help. This is called intrapsychic dialogue, a kind of dialogue with one's own images and emotions.

Soul is considered a person's total self in its living unity and wholeness and seems to be located in te core of the body, around the energy of the solar plexus. The spirit is often refereed to as the breath of life, is derived from the word pneuma, beaning "breath" in Greek, and seems locate din the head and above the crown. Both soul and spirit are referring to in the feminine and are considered key words in describing the deep structure of the collective unconscious, some times called the Dynamic Ground and appears to the ego as a dark and threatening, yet compelling force. Another, more differentiated view of the unconscious, now being called the dark feminine. For balance to occur in personality, for projection to be turned inward (not outward), and for emotional wounds to be healed, it is essential that this inner darkness be acknowledged and related to. Work with the soul and spirit helps us to recoagulate into a new form. (p. 159)

This self-knowledge includes not only cognitive shifts in thinking but also the ability to loosen ego control and allow the Ground to lead one into future endevours. It depends on the level of attention, on the trust to go where the soul guides, and on the willingness to sustain the process. (p. 160)

Instructors of adults can provide the function of a wise crone/person for their students, but it does require personal work.

The only way you can hang in and continue to care is to be sustained by some spiritual resources that transcend the immediate situation... and one needed to be about to believe in new possibilities where there were none before--new possibilities in yourself, in social situations, and in others--and depend on those to be there. To be able to do that is a faith stance. To be able to believe in it is not just an intellectual matter, which is probably what I had to begin with, but is a spiritual dynamic that is sustained beyond (myself) though a spiritual discipline.(p. 160)

Both theoretical frameworks require that instructors do their own personal work because transformation is truly understood when it is experienced. (p. 160/1)

(Fenwick, 2006, Chapter 19: Social Movement Learning: Theorizing a Canadian Tradition, Budd Hall)

Social movements can be thought of as collectivities acting wit some degree of organization, and continuity outside of institutional or organizational channels for the purpose of challenging or defending extant authority, whether it is institutionally or culturally based, in the group, organization, society, culture or world order of which they are a part. (p. 231)

Scholars share a concern for four characteristics of social movements: (p. 231)
  1. informal interaction networks
  2. shared beliefs and solidarity
  3. collective action focusing on conflict
  4. use of protest

Social movement learning refers to (p. 231)
  1. learning by persons who are part of any social movement and
  2. learning by persons outside of a social movement as a result of the actions taken or simply by the existence of social movements. (informal/incidental learning)

Social Movement Theorists' Different Perspectives
  1. North American social movement theory focuses on what movements do and how they do it and not what on their members think. (p. 233) Through tensions between different groups and organizations over defining and acting in that conceptual space that the (temporary) identity of social movement is formed. Through the notion of cognitive praxis, they emphasized the creative role of consciousness and cognition on all human action, individual, and collective. (Cognitive Praxis - creative and central role of learning processes in social movements. aka social movements are characteristically producers of innovative knowledge claims or social movements advance knowledge. ) (p. 233/4) They (Habermas, Cohen, and Melucci) focused simultaneously on
    • the process of articulating a movement identity (cognitive praxis)
    • the actors taking part in this process (movement intellectuals)
    • the context of articulation (politics, cultures, and institutions)
  2. Social movements make power visible. Social movements compete for ownership of specific social or political problems in the eyes of the public, imposing their own interpretation on these, and, in cases where they are successful, actually change the way we understand knowledge and relations of power (think: Greenpeace, Clayoquot Sound, ...)
  3. Interpretive Frames: a generalized conceptual structure that allows one to make sense of daily lived experiences and locate actions within an understanding of the world. (Freire's alternative frame = speaking from the marginalized peasants as naming the world = anti-systems frames, realignment frames, inclusion frames, revitalization frames, depending on the specifics. (p. 234)
  4. Free choice learning within community social action projects = collective learning fosters individual learning an vice versa, whereby individuals produce resources in action and as outcomes of their activities. These resources expand the action possibilities of the collective and thus constitute learning.
  5. Social movements are catalysts for personal transformation and the environment within which transformation occurs. Social movements define the future topics of adult education. Learning within social movements has a more powerful impact on society than does all the learning that takes place in schools (hmmm... that's a big claim.)
  6. Social movement learning is viewed within a framework of endogenous (produced or growing from within) knowledge creation, similar to the cognitive praxis notion. (This is contrasted with exogenous--originating externally--knowledge transmission, which understands education (rather than learning) as a tool for maintaining the status quo and about the world.) Learning is seen as (1) a people's tool (a political dimension) (2) a democratic right (learning by all) (3) learning from the world (epistemological dimension) (p. 234)
  7. Informal learning emerges from and advances social action (p. 234) (1) by contributing to building alternative organizational forms, (2) by making links between the spiritual and the political, (3) by illuminating the power of a small groups of committed people (4) by showing how expertise can be brought in from outside. learning deepens in the process of taking action
  8. The form of social movement learning is in part determined by the material conditions of the class structures from which the social movement activists emerge. (p. 235) (Read this: What is Meant by Historical Materialism--Materialist philosophy said that all ideas have their root in the material conditions out of which they come. Materialism takes the focus away from a discussion of abstract ideals that society is supposed to be emulating, and looks at the actual material organization of society. The historical materialist approach to society allows us to see the source of class conflict. By looking at the system of production, we can see that the interests of the capitalists—namely, to make increasing profits—and the interests of the workers—to survive and live comfortably— are fundamentally at odds. It's not like the child laborer in a sweatshop chooses to be an oppressed worker. People are tied to their material conditions of existence, and it is those conditions that determine the way they think. The material condition is what also determines the society's institutions, such as the legal system and the political superstructure—that is, the state.)
  9. There is a lack of focus is social movements. An absence of clarity about the ultimate goal being the transfer of power from capital to the working people, and facilitates the weakening of capitalist control over democratic practice that we seek as adults (don't understand the last part). p. 235

(Fenwick, 2006, Chapter 21: Environmental Adult Education in Canada, Darlene Clover)

Ecological deterioration is a by-product of capitalism's "creative powers over nature," the insatiable need for natural resources, the destructive methods, and the inequitable use and ownership of these resources--will soon eclipse ideological conflict as the dominant national security concern throughout the world. (p. 250)
Public education's tenets of environmental education is focused on small individual changes
  • awareness raising
  • information sharing
  • individual behaviour

Environmental Adult Education (EAE)
  • provides space for dialogue, debate, creativity, and activism;
  • helps adults to uncover the root causes of environmental problems and encourages collective, active citizenship
  • based on the belief that people have existing ecological knowledges and a variety of human/Earth relationships that must be respected and built upon.

(Scott, 1998, Chapter 14: An overview of transformation theory in adult education by Sue Scott)

To be considered a transformation rather than just a change their must
1. Structural change. (p. 178)
  • either social structural transformation
  • personal structural transformation
  • or both
2. The aim or intention must be grounded in a future vision that includes (p. 178/9)
  • initiate a fundamental shift in people's beliefs and values and
  • must include a social vision about the future based on a value system that includes the struggle for freedom, democracy or equity, and authenticity.
3. A shift in what counts as knowledge (p. 178)
4. Transformation is based on conflict theory, not consensus or accommodation/adaption theory.
  • there must be something that unsettles us, shakes us up and conflict theory assumes there are different interests present when people act to change either personal meaning or social structures.

Social Transformation

Structure (p. 179)
  • orthodox usage refers to the institutionally macro features of society
  • versus the micro features of face-to-face interactions.

Structure is considered
  • the social organization (including assumptions about race, class, and gender);
  • institutions and cultural products of society, like language and knowledge; or
  • the external social context of behaviour.
  • Others regard social structure as if social processes are detached/independent from people's activities--this is a view of social behaviour and it treated as a mechanical outcome of objective social relations. (Yuck!)
  • Most theorists include a theory of action where through people's action/power/agency individuals have the capacity to act to change structures in society.

Critical theory is social theory oriented toward critiquing and changing society as a whole, in contrast to traditional theory oriented only to understanding or explaining it. Core concepts of critical theory are:
  1. That critical social theory should be directed at the totality of society in its historical specificity (i.e. how it came to be configured at a specific point in time), and
  2. That Critical Theory should improve understanding of society by integrating all the major social sciences, including economics, sociology, history, political science, anthropology, and psychology. http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/critical+theory

In Canada, social transformation has had a critical orientation. (p. 179)

Jurgen Habermas a member of Frankfurt School of critical theory. The school was set up to deal with the ills of society, the things that kept people from being fulfilled, and attempted to identify the social changes that are necessary in order to produce a just and democratic society. (p. 179/80)

Habermas say that the view of rationality - the ability to think logically and analytically -- is more than a strategic calculation of how to achieve some chosen end; it denies that humans communicate through interaction and seek consensus through the use of language (communicative action). Habermas believes knowledge is constructed with shared meanings among people who put forth "validity claims" and try to persuade each other with their views backed up in various recognized ways. (p. 180)

Reformist vs transformist
Some called the Antigonish Movement more reformist in nature since the form of structural change was in the relationship between the exploited and the exploiters through a conflictual process, but capitalism itself was not changed.
  • the fishers constructed their own knowledge by re-defining their own experiences (#3);
  • they came to a new meaning and understanding and were able to gain freedom from dependency and servitude, economically and psychically (#2).

Post-modernists question the quest for truth and freedom. Really useful knowledge was emancipatory, as it supported freedom from constraints that inhibit progress. But progress has gone astray (Holocaust, nuclear arms,... ) and this calls into question our progress towards truth and liberty. They claim that truth and liberty can no longer be used to legitimate knowledge.

Post-modernists criteria for knowledge revolves around "performativity" of the system-- (p. 181)
  • the systemic usefulness of knowledge that is based on skills
  • rather than ideals and the progress of truth and liberty

Emphasis: (encroachment in instrumentalists and new-liberal thinking on education) (p. 181/2)
  • inter-relationship between the individualizing discourses of learner-centeredness;
  • emphasis on identity and lifestyle;
  • trends toward a market in learning opportunities in which the 'real use value' of knowledge is tied in increasingly complex ways to optimizing the efficiency of the system.

Personal Transformation

Symbolic Interactionists (humanists), (p. 182)
  • believe that a person's self and mind are intrinsically social processes; they are imbued from birth in the social customs and habits of culture and the social group.
  • people act toward things based on the meaning those things have for them; and these meanings are derived from social interaction and modified through interpretation. (wikipedia discussion)
  • Sociologists working in this tradition have researched a wide range of topics using a variety of research methods. However, the majority of interactionist research uses qualitative research methods, like participant observation, to study aspects of (1) social interaction and/or (2) individuals' selves. (wikipedia discussion)
  • stress that researchers and practitioners should try to unravel the "meaningful worlds" of the social groups they study in order to give an insider's account of what it's like being in a particular group.
  • Social interactionists attend to the delicate interweaving bewteen the institutional features of society and the creative capacities of people.
  • traditional: individuals as the primary learning unit, not groups

Criteria for Personal Transformation
  1. Structural change occurs in the psyche of individuals (Self = ego + personal unconscious + collective unconscious). The aim of personal transformation is to align various disparate parts of the self to gain coherence, peace, and a sense of wholeness, which promotes a sense of freedom and authenticity and can contribute to meaningful work and activity in the social sphere.
  2. , 3. , and 4. are the same as social transformation.

Mezirow proposes a primarily cognitive restructuring of the ego... We can transform our perspectives in a safe environment where reflection through dialogue on the fundamental premises that guide our lives are challenged by the group members--this can only be done in a group or in social interaction as we often need help uncovering heretofore (before this time) undisclosed meaning schemes (p. 183). Conflict is required to challenge habits and assumptions that have dulled our senses and become like old shoes, comfortable but not particularly meaningful anymore.

Boyd calls personal transformation in adult education transformative education. The word 'education' connotes a deeper notion that includes an expansion of consciousness that is more than just cognitive. The aim of personal work is to attain self'knowledge which leads to a congruence between the inner and outer parts of our lives and what emerges is a more authentic person. (p. 183)

Criticisms of the analytical depth orientation is dwelling on the personal takes away from the concerns of the social. (p. 184)

Proponents claim that, (p. 184)
  • without the work of self-knowledge, action can be skewed, vulnerability is a possibility and inappropriate eruptions into conscious awareness and speech shake confidence and focus in the heat of social action.
  • without internal work, it is possible for the ego to think it is in control of situations when in fact what governs a collective milieu or action is a collective phenomenon deeper than just our awareness. (We have all experienced when a rhythm exist in a group and when it does not; the group "clicks" when it does.)

Transformation is highly reflective and it is critical that there is an unrelenting questioning of what is going on, what it means and what difference it makes to the learner. This requires ego action in the form of critical thinking. (p. 184)
  • dialogue is present in both perspective transformation and in transformative education.
    • inter-subjective - social dialogue that composes a meaning perspective
    • intra-psychic dialogue between the two dynamic parts of the psyche (unconscious and ego) through dreams, fantasies, and speech eruptions.

Intersection of the Personal and the Social (p. 184/5)
Where the social upheaval, the personal is affected and vice versa. Freire shows that changing individuals structurally (self power and self-concept) has massive connotations for changes in society. It is socially a collective phenomenon, a collective unconscious shift, and a cognitive change within the egos of individuals.

  • cycle between the action and the reflection on the action.
  • action in the world <---- praxis --->reflection on the action in a growing depth of understanding.
  • aka hermeneutical (interpretive or explanatory) circle emphasizes new levels of interpretations with a set of new questions which challenges the former interpretation
Through conscientization, the self in the person changes in dialogue and in action, it is a fundamentally a social process that transcends an individualistic concern for knowing.


(Scott, 1998, Chapter 15: Transformative Learning: Individual Growth and Development though Critical Reflection by Patricia Cranton)

Defining Transformative Learning (p. 189-91)
  • Meaning Structures: Since events are subjective there is not universal system of constructs, only personal constructs (to compose or frame mentally). Learners must engage in critical reflection to change meaning schemes and perspectives. Meaning schemes and meaning perspective constitute a frame of reference (link).
    • Meaning Schemes are constituted by a cluster of feelings, specific beliefs, attitudes, and value judgments that shape an interpretation (Mezirow, 1996) (same link).
      • meaning schemes are based on the experiences we have, we form habitual expectations about what will happen next. We do not live based on a random set of expectations and assumptions; our meaning schemes are interrelated in ways that are unique to our individual experiences.
    • Meaning Perspectives (habits of mind) consist of broad, generalized, orienting predispositions (Mezirow, 1996) These meaning perspectives need to be challenged if deep learning is to occur.--to grow, one has to question. (same link). Perspective transformation implies "a mind watching itsel," that is, being critically aware of one's own awareness and how it is constructed (Spencer, 2006, p. 55). (I.e., through many encounters with women as friends, colleagues, and teachers have led me to develop a set of expectations about women, labeled meaning perspectives.)
      • Socio-linguistic meaning perspectives relate to the social norms, language use, and cultural codes that underpin all our assumptions and often lead to prejudices, stereo typical judgments, political views, and the like. (same link)
      • Psychological meaning perspectives relate to our understanding of ourselves as individuals and how we are shaped by our self-concept, inhibitions, defense mechanisms, and psychological type preferences. (same link)
      • Epistemic meaning perspectives are those that connect with what we know and how we come to know it. They are embedded in our developmental phase (Kegan, 1994), cognitive or learning styles (Kolb, 1984), and sensory preferences. These preferences can be well develop or distorted. For example, clients who insist they learn only from concrete experience, "activists" in Honey and Mumfords' (1992) classification, may need to have their epistemic meaning perspective challenged in order to develop a more inclusive style. (same link) The way we see ourselves can, in turn, have an impact on the way we use our knowledge. (p. 189)
  • Distorted/Underdeveloped assumptions are ones that lead the learner to view reality in a way that arbitrarily limits what is included, impedes differentiation, lacks permeability or openness to other ways of seeing, or does not facilitate an integration of experience. We hold many assumptions and perspectives, based on our previous experiences, which we have never questioned.
  • Critical Reflection: The central process and forms the heart of transformative learning and the most effective way of externalizing deep-seated assumptions that lead to transformation is through critical questioning and reflectivity. (same link) Critical reflection leads us to change our assumptions and perhaps transform our perspectives.
    • Content reflection is considering the content of the problem. "What is going on here?" a learner might as when encountering a new piece of equipment, a different procedure or a change in group structure (p. 190).
    • Process reflection is reflection about how things came to be the way they are, an examination of the process of problem solving being used in the situation. "How have I come to have this perception?" a learner could ask when experiencing a fear of failure of anxiety about trying something new.
    • Only premise reflection can lead to perspective transformation, where the reflection involves probing the relevance of the problem itself. (same link). The learner questions the problem ans asks, "Why does this matter, anyway?" and the very premise of the reflection itself is challenges. Through premise reflection assumptions, beliefs, and values are questioned and this questioning process leads to transformative learning (p. 190)
  • Instrumental, Communicative, and Emancipatory Learning
    • Human interests (Habermas)
      • controlling and manipulating the environment--> leads to acquiring instrumental knowledge, a knowledge how to build shelters, grow food, develop transportation, ...We accumulate this type of knowledge through instrumental learning. (Some people try to explain ALL knowledge as instrumental, ie social relationships, human nature, as though they were scientific cause and effect phenomena.) (p. 191)
      • practical interest in understanding each other and their social group--> leads to acquire practical knowledge through the use of language. We want to know what other intend and to make ourselves understood through conversation and discussion, listening to others, watching tv, and reading books. We gain a knowledge of social norms, values, beliefs, political issues and philosophical concepts. Mezirow claims that most of the significant adult learning is communicative learning.
      • emancipatory interest in becoming free from ignorance come from our desire to grow, develop, and increase our self-awareness. We want to improve ourselves, understand ourselves, become better human beings, and we work towards this goal by trying to free ourselves of self-distortions and social distortions. Emancipatory learning freedom from forces that limits our options and our rational control over our lives by have been taken for granted or seen as beyond human control. Emancipatory learning can influence both instrumental and practical knowledge. (Critical reflection is the central process in emancipatory learning and the outcome is often transformative.)


Unit 4 Education for Diversity

Unit 5 Adult Education in the 21st Century

What is the difference between discussion and dialogue? http://peptechtalk.blogspot.com/2006/01/dialogue-versus-discussion.html

This is not from the course, but thinking about online learning made me look up this.